Review of Obesity Literature Review

Review of Obesity Literature Review

Review of Obesity Literature Review

The review of the literature was conducted to explore studies that are associated with nursing education for obesity and a healthy diet. Using the following words both singularly and in multiple combinations: nursing training, obesity, outpatient care, nursing psychiatry, overweight, diet, obesity facts, obesity prevention, body weight, and care management planning. Databases searched, limited to the years 2018 to 2023, will include AMED, Alt Health Watch, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, EBSCO, Medical Journal sites for nursing care, nursing training, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Directory of Open Access Journals, and Google Scholar . The search was limited to the years 2018 to 2023 to ensure that current evidence-based literature was reviewed and summarized for the purpose this project. A summary of the review of the literature is presented.

Dynamics of Outpatient CareReview of Obesity Literature Review

According to Balani et al., (2019) The epidemic of obesity is a significant health crisis that continues to increase globally, it is reported that in the United States, more than two-thirds of adults are considered either overweight or obese. A lifestyle disease is critical to the discussion on nursing care for outpatient obesity. As such, care focuses on management and fostering better and healthy weight maintenance (Kalligeros et al., 2020). Thus, it does not necessarily focus on age but understands that eagerness is also a risk factor for comorbidities associated with being overweight. Furthermore, Kalligeros et al. (2020) study points out that the exploration of the association between obesity and chronic diseases is something that should be understood. This is because there is a direct relation between the severity of the outcomes seen in intensive care units and admission rates. For example, research that analyzes a retrospective cohort with 103 patients found that the patients admitted to the hospital history of heart disease is a direct result of obesity. Therefore, a recommendation is that vigilance should be given to treating patients with obesity starting from the outpatient setting, alluding to necessitated prevention of escalation when faced with other conditions (Kalligeros et al., 2020).

Role of Nursing

The role of nursing is to provide integrated care and enhance patient comfort by providing interventions to alleviate symptoms of obesity. Findings from Rezaei et al. (2022) study point out that high morbidity rates are caused by poor health maintenance, which aligns with the results in studies by Smith et al. 2020. Furthermore, Gadde et al. (2018) study findings indicate a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality rates among patients in weight maintenance trials. The high number of obesity cases creates a risk factor in the population; this points to the need to emphasize training for this. Recognizing physician efforts in collaboration with outpatients by sensitization on environmental awareness is essential (Walia et al., 2022). This includes considering that proper evaluation starts by recognizing the appropriateness of the environment for supporting weight management. Achieving and maintaining weight loss or gain requires physician-patient collaboration in a way that can be facilitated by nurses providing pertinent information. Again, support and motivation are also determined by letting a carefully defined plan be identified with the patient to understand the expected health outcomes. This is the nurse’s work as it allows for the recognition of a strategy of control for each patient ( Stonerock & Blumenthal, 2017, p. 1457).

According to Rezaei et al. (2022), the combination of aspects such as the cost of health, care expenditures, and hospitalization risks are some of the reasons that can be used in motivating outpatients to adhere to their plan of losing weight. This study aligns with the findings of Piché et al. (2020) study findings. The findings indicate that advanced heart diseases are often caused by obesity and lack of maintenance, and the determinant of failure lies in the early handling of the issue. Therefore, health literacy is an integral part of the nursing fraternity to impart to the patients as it allows for the opportunity to understand the implication of obesity in the long run. Consequently, the narrative is applicable because by the time medication is involved, the progression will be higher risk associated and thus significant mortality risk, however, creating a provider-patient relationship with a healthy diet, diabetes and obesity teaching without having a judgmental response, whereby both parties agrees on goals, share a vision of improvement in general metabolic health status, the patient and provider will be able to create a personalized and participatory lifestyle changes plan as described by Foley et al. (2019) study. Furthermore, Alexander et al. (2021) study findings indicate that health literacy as part of outpatient training will provide the necessary support for proper weight loss and maintain it while allowing room for recognition of mental health too. This caters to the grasping of the incorporation of strategies that align outcomes centered on the totality of patient care within the six sigma of quality improvement in healthcare delivery.

Alexander et al. (2021) research focuses on promoting healthcare delivery as a focal point in preventive care and is supported by Levine et al. (2019), which look at a similar issue but with a different approach. Levine et al. (2019) surveyed to find out why the use of preventive healthcare is still low in the modern healthcare system. The findings from the survey linked modernization and the advancement in technology as one the contributors to the limited use of preventive medicine. Nevertheless, Harris et al. (2017) points out how using preventive healthcare would enhance the efficiency of care and result in better outcomes. Therefore, Alexander et al., 2021; Levine et al., 2019; Harris et al., 2017 studies collectively look at transitioning patients from outpatient to inpatient and provide insight into what to avoid and what is necessary to promote better care. From the start, the studies allow room for relativity in practices that promote and optimize safety, and within those points to the relevance of individual patient circumstances. While the project gives valuable information on the standard procedure, it contributes to the general discussion on the improvement of health by nurses. It thus applies that, for all patients, recognition of the value in situation background assessment facilitates the improvement of health outcomes. The improvement starts with a reduction in risks hence understanding beneficial outcomes accurately first (Alexander et al., 2021).

Recognition of Potential Barriers

There is also a need to recognize the impact of cultural competency in nursing care (Chae & Park, 2019). With outpatients, there is a risk of exposure to external biases and pressure that may result in declining health whenever they leave a session. Therefore, the value must be provided in educating the patient on the potential risks they face within their environment. This can only be achieved through collaboration which aligns with the results of Seger’s (2019) and Ogbolu et al. (2018) studies. Furthermore, it is essential for the perspective of the community and support system of the patient to be observed by the patient (Bloor & McIntosh, 2019). Therefore, sharing with the nurse is a natural step of goal setting that allows an informed understanding of the underlying implication of the stereotypes and norms of expectation (Halvorson et al., 2019). This will help focus on reducing the risk of “temptation” of hindrances to improving patient health in a way that respects them and their communities. Similarly, (Balani, et al., 2019) study examined factors affecting healthy weight in the community, the study explained that obesity is not a lifestyle crisis, but rather a complicated, chronic disease affecting areas of behavioral, psychosocial, biological, and environmental factors. For this reason, there is a need for a collaborative and comprehensive approach to obesity management. Therefore, foundational planning is essential for the nurse and the patient to recognize early on.

According to Hee Soon, et al. (2019) opted to conduct a study on this subject focusing on the younger populations. They point out that one thing that tends to be overlooked is the fact that children tend to learn from what they see happening in their surroundings. Thus, even if a child is prone to eating healthy when they are in their respective homes, they are also prone to be influenced by what they see in schools or other surroundings. This research study aimed to answering the question, “What are the barriers at home and school to healthy eating?” It also aimed at answering this through the perspectives of parents and children who had or were suffering from obesity, therefore, parents, teachers, and community healthcare providers should alleviate the issues of obesity through adequate healthy diet teaching and implementation.

It is imperative that when it comes to the management of unvoiced expectations of a patient in a way that recognizes their efforts and input towards change. According to Ma et al. (2019) study findings, obesity management requires self-discipline at a higher level than average and recognizing a gradual result, supported by Reas’s (2017) study. These studies describe how lack of self-discipline results in binge eating disorder; at the same time, public and healthcare professionals’ knowledge, and attitudes toward the relationship between self-awareness results in binge eating disorder and, consequently, weight gain (obesity). The fact that it cannot be cured by medication and results are not immediate is a cause of concern that both nurse and patient should understand (Maciejewski et al., 2019). It requires patience and a lens where small milestones can only weigh competent management. Furthermore, obesity practitioners must have complete comprehension and apply evidence-based knowledge while administering care to patients with obesity (Srivastava et al., 2019: p.196).

When management optimization is needed in the treatment strategy for a patient with obesity, especially outpatients, there is a need for longitudinal consideration of the comprehensiveness of management aspects. According to Seger (2019), a complication of obesity as a chronic illness is as sophisticated as any other issue, which aligns with Godfrey et al. (2017) study. Godfrey et al. (2017) describe the complications primarily associated with maternal obesity, including coronary artery disease, obesity in the offspring, asthma, and allergies. In addition, Wharton et al. (2020), tackles nursing and obesity pointing it to be one of the current health concerns affecting a large proportion of the world’s population as it interferes with health outcomes. As such, an intensity level should be employed with preventive controls in line with the responsibility set. This allows for desired treatment to be the main goal rather than the desired end product, such as specific weight. It removes the tension without negating the implication of the process and thus optimizes input by the small measures that can be seen regularly. Therefore, a pathophysiological approach is necessary for an all-hands-on methodology hence simplicity that is specific to the patient in question rather than a generalization as in Block et al. (2020) study findings.

Nurses’ Knowledge of The Management of Obesity

Inadequacy of skills and knowledge among healthcare professionals is one of the significant challenges facing the fight against metabolic conditions such as obesity. Bucher Della Torre et al. (2018) describe one of the challenges in one of the university hospitals as the presentation of poor knowledge, skills, and attitude about obesity among nurses and physicians, which aligns with the findings of Turner et al.’s (2018) study. Turner et al.’s study revealed inadequate knowledge concerning managing obesity effectively. The results imply that provider perception of optimal healthcare services for obesity is at odds with research-based guidelines. Healthcare practitioners must be aware of the best ways to use pharmacotherapy and behavioral counseling, such as adopting a healthy diet; these interventions are widely applied in improving the health of obese patients (Turner et al., 2018).

Reinforcing Positive Environment in Nurse-Patient Relationship

When looking at the studies, it is evident that nurse and patient relationships are integral to both the definition of health and the understanding of treatment planning. These are essential to the pathways to positive outcome expectation and hence accurate to the operational definitions. Given that outpatient care for obesity is almost therapeutic, there is a sense of delivery requiring that verbal and non-verbal communication be read. As such, the nurse must have the core conditioning of genuine concerns, which sometimes could be perceived as going above and beyond the baseline required (Okdie & Ewoldsen, 2018). The relationship between the two is skill-based, examining the level of trust in both directions with absolute truths. The points of conflict should thus be handled with care and isolated from the goals by accepting attitudes as progression hence the removal of fear (Walia et al., 2022). This also removes the anxiety of either side as the nurse can trust that discipline will be employed within the period they have not met. Similarly, the patient will trust that information will not be withheld, anger will not be enforced, and the environment of care will be positively reinforced with empathy rather than pity.


Chapter II presented a review of the recognition of nurses’ efforts in collaboration with outpatients by sensitization on personal and environmental awareness as essential in all round wellness. The chapter details the importance of trust and unique relationships from one patient to another in ensuring the totality of care. Furthermore, it presents strategies that align outcomes centered on the totality of patient care within the six sigma of quality improvement in healthcare delivery. Chapter III will discuss the intended project setting and population, the content expert participants, data collection methods, project tools, the protection of human subjects, and a chapter summary. Chapter IV will discuss the evaluation of the project, implications for future advanced nursing practice, recommendations for future projects and research, and a chapter summary.

Review of Obesity Literature Review