Comparison of Therapies for children Diagnosed with ADHD

Comparison of Therapies for children Diagnosed with ADHD

Comparison of Therapies for children Diagnosed with ADHD


Comparison of Therapies for children Diagnosed with ADHD

Barbara Maclure





Comparison of Therapies for children Diagnosed with ADHD


This study’s participants will consist of 100 children (N=100) aged 4 to 6 years. This study will be

conducted in the school where the children attend the class. The main reason behind selecting the

school setting is because, in this setting, all the factors that affect work ethic, social interaction, and

behavior will be considered. To conduct this study successfully, a class will be required to have 20-

25 students, their teacher, and our professionals. All the participants will be kindergarten children

with who ADHD has been diagnosed. We will ensure that the sample size is large enough so that

we will be able to collect data that will support or dispute the research question. Using one hundred

participants surpasses the threshold; therefore, the data to be collected will have a weight to

support or dispute the research question. We will use purposeful sampling criteria to find one

hundred students in the grade kindergarten aged 4-6 years. In qualitative research, it is essential to

use purposeful sampling to get valuable data despite the limited resources. The children’s choice

will be based on pediatrician evaluations and diagnosis of ADHD. To get the participant, it will be

ensured that they have not gone a treatment therapy before the start of the study. This is to facilitate

the participant to be chosen randomly between methylphenidate treatment and behavioral therapy.

The study will ensure that the parent consent of the children is taken. The participant will involve

males and females.


In this study, the best research design is using qualitative experimental research. The main feature

of experimental design is selecting the participant randomly; therefore, the research has a

maximum control level. In much research for identifying a relationship between two or more


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variables, they embrace experimental research. This research amicably compares two or more

groups. Experimental research consists of both of experimental group and the control group. This

experimental group will consist of the children undergoing medication or behavioral therapy; on

the other hand, a control group entails children undergoing Methylphenidate. The experimental

group gives an independent variable of behavioral therapy. The research will relate behavior

therapy’s effects symptoms of ADHD and the effect of Methylphenidate therapy on the same


Extraneous Variables

Many variables must be examined and recorded in observing and recording various issues related

to ADHD children. No factors present in the children’s classroom that may not have an indirect

influence on the children’s behaviors yet are not related to the ADHD symptoms. The presence of

distractibility and peer influence are some of the core aspects that are likely to influence children’s

behaviors. The children can also be affected by the underlying situation related to ADHD and the

comorbidities resulting from ADHD. Some of these variables cannot be fully monitored but can be

closely checked concerning the study.


The instrument used in this study to determine whether behavioral therapy is effective in

Comparison to Methylphenidate therapy in treatment of ADHD is a numerical rating scale.

Specifically, the study’s scale will be the Children’s Attentions deficit Evaluation scale. This scale

was developed by different researchers that used the current literature in neurology, psychology,

and education in modern practices of identifying other individuals’ diagnoses. (Buyx, 2019). The

reliability of this scale is much dependent on the participant’s faithfulness, but the validity of scale

studies is so promising.




Using this scale in the schools and homes version plays an essential role in documentation of

ADHD features in schools and home settings of children aged 2-6 years. In most instances, the

ADHD scales is constructed for children’s symptoms who are older; thus, this scale will be used as

it evaluates the targeted age of the study. To some extent, this scale will be unique as it will enable

both parents and teachers to participate in the ADHD symptoms present in the numerical scale.

This scale will be part of the pre-diagnosis for ADHD and the accomplishing the research of the

parents and teachers with a repetition of a questionnaire. This will enable the comparisons of the

child questionnaire before behavioral and Methylphenidate therapy and provide answers if a

reduction of symptoms is noted concerning the administered treatment.

Intervention Description

Based on CDC, behavioral therapy is the first line of treatment for children under six years and

having been diagnosed with ADHD is behavioral therapy. Behavioral medicine is essential in

monitoring any negative behaviors resulting from ADHD. The principle used by behavioral

therapy is that the behaviors are usually learned, and destructive behaviors can be modified.

Psychologists can assist parents and children in focusing on the negative behaviors that arise from

ADHD and the role to play in changing those behaviors. Some forms of behavioral therapy entail

cognitive behavioral, aversion therapy, cognitive behavioral, and system desensitization. When

working with both the children and the parents, the therapist can use on-form therapy or combine

multiple of them based on their effectiveness

Data Collection Procedure

This study’s participants will be based on the recommendation of pediatricians. The participant will

involve children aged 4 to 6 years diagnosed with ADHD who have yet to start the treatment.

Before the participant’s placement, it will be ensured that the parent’s consent is obtained. Once the


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recommendation is made, and the parent signs the consent, the research will go to IRB to seek

approval. The researcher will search the group using random means. Once the IRB verifies the

approval, the participant will be grouped into two. Group A acts as control group, and group B acts

as treatment group.

1. Group A

a. There will be the prescription of the methylphenidate dosage of the participant by the


b. The participant will be required to take Methylphenidate dosage every morning at 7 am

before school. They will be taking the dosage at the same time

c. It will be ensured that all the participants do not miss the dosage of medication

d. All side effects of Methylphenidate will be closely monitored

2. Group B

a. In two months, the participant and parents will undergo eight behavioral therapy sessions

with a well-trained psychologist.

b. The teachers and parents will provide the positive behaviors identified

c. The teachers and the parents will be required to have similar behavioral systems in the

classroom and at home to have a consistency of participants.

d. It will ensure that the participant has a consistent discipline band adequate structure.

Data Analysis

The research will be conducted in different demographics to have diverse participant groups.

Male and females will be included in the study aged 4-6 years. The study will ensure that the

participants are from different ethnic groups having the fulfillment of being diagnosed with




ADHD yet not started the treatment. Descriptive studies will be implemented to analyze the

demographic, as shown IN the table below.

Race Age Gender Grade

Central Tendency




Standard Deviation




In the analysis, ADHD symptoms score will be determined by ACADDES educators and

parent questionnaires. The questionnaire will use a scale that ranges from 0 to 4. Zero indicates

no sign of ADHD, and four exhibits ADHD behavior. The trial participants in the two available

groups’ scores will be done before that treatment when completion of the trial process is done.

The analysis is supposed to run through ECADDES computer system that will convert scores

from raw to standards and percentiles, thus making the score to be more efficient. The

descriptive statistics will consist of standard deviation, Variance and inference methods will be

a t-test used to analyze data collected from the questionnaire. Comparison will be made in both

groups to examine whether experimental group participants in the behavior therapy outcomes

differed from the stimulant Methylphenidate control group.


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The study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of the treatment symptoms of ADHD

between behavioral and Methylphenidate therapy. This research was guided by the hypothesis

that stated non-pharmacology therapy is an appropriate therapy for ADHD compared to

Methylphenidate stimulant therapy for children aged 4-6 years. Based on the literature review,

we can predict the real expectation of the results. For example, the CDC’s study in 2018

indicated that less than 50 % of the children practicing stimulant therapy had initially practiced

behavioral therapy. Of the children aged between 4-5 years, only one out of five was taking the

medication to treat ADHD instead of recommending the use of behavioral therapy. This study

also identified variations in the use of behavioral treatment from State to State. (Thyagarajan

(2019) The study showed that all those states that opted to utilize behavioral therapy as the first

line of treatment had decreased the number of children on the stimulate therapies. Most studies

have put a lot of emphasis on combining behavioral therapy and stimulant medication. The

current research also shows that pharmacological therapy is an effective method of treatment of

the symptoms.

The figure below shows the expected results of the side effects of the different therapies.




1 2 3 4 5










Group A

Group B

Comparison of the Two Groups

Group A Group B

This indicates that the method B score is higher than A, thus more effective in treating ADHD.


Ethical Issues

In conducting any research, there are incidences of ethical issues to arise, especially when

using minor children. When performing the study involving children, it is essential to identify

what the targeted population will benefit from the research. The central issue that requires to be

addressed is whether the investigation will bring harm to children. (Freitag & Buyx (2019). In

this research, the participant in the control group will receive Methylphenidate therapy which

cannot endanger the participant or put them at risk from the medication. The parents will be

well informed of the side effect through consent, and if the side effects arise, the pediatrician

will check the patient. Despite the research being conducted in a school setting, it will be

ensured that confidentiality and privacy will remain intact. The researcher will not require to

expose the information on the progress of the teachers who is part of the evaluation process.

Limitation of the study


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The environment in which the research is conducted may become prone to biased results. The

classroom environment may be subject to high stimulation from the children. It may be a rise

in distractions that may result in poor results during the evaluation process. In addition, the

person collecting the data may affect the performance. The teacher may score the students

differently basing the criteria used, while the parents see them differently. The teacher and the

parents can skew the score since they know the initial performance. To p

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